Effectiveness of Cultivando Los Angeles Salud: A Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Promotion Program for Low-Income Hispanic ladies


M. E FernГЎndez, A. Gonzales, and G. Tortolero-Luna originated the research, created the dimension instruments and research protocols, and oversaw research implementation. A. Gonzales and M. Saavedra-Embesi, our community lovers through the nationwide Center for Farmworker Health, drafted the information regarding the scheduled system and in addition took part in the implementation of the analysis. J. Williams drafted the dimension chapters of this article while the tables. W. Chan assisted into the analysis associated with the information for the revised article and contributed into the analysis and outcomes chapters of the content. All writers took part in conceptualization of some ideas, interpretation of outcomes, and article editing and review.

  • Abstract
  • Complete Text
  • References


Goals. We tested the potency of a lay wellness worker intervention to improve breast and cervical cancer tumors assessment among low-income Hispanic females.

Practices. individuals had been ladies 50 years and older who have been nonadherent to mammography (letter = 464) or Papanicolaou (Pap) test (n = 243) assessment tips. Following the assortment of standard information, lay wellness workers applied the Cultivando la Salud (CLS; Cultivating Health) intervention. Information enthusiasts then interviewed the individuals six months later on.

Results. At follow-up, assessment conclusion ended up being higher among feamales in the intervention team compared to the control team for both mammography (40.8% vs 29.9%; P 1–6 Cervical cancer tumors incidence and mortality prices are almost two times as high for Hispanic ladies since they are for non-Hispanic White women; in addition, Hispanic ladies are identified at later on phases and now have poorer survival prices. 1,6

Reduced quantities of cancer tumors assessment among Hispanic women can be the consequence of psychosocial facets fear that is including of, invasive procedures, and discomfort; not enough understanding of cancer tumors and its particular assessment practices; attitudes of fatalism; spiritual or religious opinions; issues over privacy; language obstacles and identified discrimination; embarrassment; and partner disapproval. 1,7–24 outside factors also influence testing, such as for instance deficiencies in medical insurance, regular resources of medical care, and doctor referral; transport obstacles; price; and work that is restrictive.

Effective cancer-control programs for Hispanic ladies used (1) Spanish-language news; (2) part models showing up in advertising (magazines, tv) with social reinforcement by community volunteers; (3) “small media,” such as videos delivered in team settings or kiosks; (4) multimethod approaches; and (5) lay health workers or promotoras. 38–47 The lay wellness worker or promotora model, that has been first developed in Latin America, is just a peer health education model whereby respected community people educate peers in a culturally appropriate way. 48,49

A current Cochrane review documented the potency of lay wellness worker programs for increasing immunization uptake, advertising nursing, enhancing tuberculosis results, and reducing morbidity and mortality because of youth diseases. 50,51 an additional systematic review, the usa Preventive Services Task Force identified 1-on-1 training as a powerful technique for increasing both breast and cancer screening that is cervical. 52 the duty force ended up being struggling to produce a suggestion concerning the utilization of lay health worker programs particularly since there had been inadequate variety of posted studies assessing their effectiveness.

The effectiveness of this model for increasing cancer screening has yet to be fully explored although evidence suggests that lay health worker programs can improve some health behaviors. To fill this space into the literary works, we applied and evaluated Cultivando los angeles Salud (Cultivating wellness), a lay health worker–delivered academic intervention for breast and cervical cancer tumors testing. We expected the intervention would increase mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) test testing among low-income Hispanic farmworker females whom did perhaps perhaps not stick to recommended testing directions.

We developed an intervention that is educationalCultivando la Salud) in 2004 to boost breast and cervical cancer tumors testing among low-income, low-literacy, Hispanic female farmworkers aged 50 years and older. And even though Pap test assessment is preferred for more youthful females, we thought we would consist of only women 50 years and older because proof implies that prices of invasive cervical cancer tumors are greater, prices of testing are reduced, and obstacles to screening vary among older Hispanic females than among younger ladies. 13,18,53–57 We developed the intervention through the use of maxims of community-based participatory research 58 and intervention mapping, an approach that is systematic intervention preparation and execution. 14,59 We opted lay health workers to supply the intervention system for their unique power to achieve, through individual contact in the neighborhood, ladies who hardly ever or never ever access health care bills. Lay health workers had been anticipated not just to teach ladies and motivate them to have assessment but in addition to supply assistance that is practical would facilitate the ladies’s use of testing services.

This system materials contains an application manual, an exercise curriculum, and a couple of training tools for the health that is lay (“tool box”). This system manual had been made to increase use of this scheduled system and also to provide instructions for system execution and sustainability. It included a description associated with system, proof of its effectiveness, and information on how exactly to develop and manage a lay wellness worker system. Working out curriculum contains lesson plans, learning tasks, and artistic helps for lay health worker training by center staff. The “tool box” included breast that is bilingual cervical cancer tumors academic materials including a movie, flipchart, breast models, pamphlets, and a training guide. The health that is lay utilized these materials to supply assessment information to ladies in the city. 60 A pilot research carried out in 2 farmworker communities in south Texas (Brownsville and Pharr) supplied information about the appropriateness and acceptability associated with materials that are educational the feasibility of applying this system. 14,61


This research had been sustained by a cooperative contract from the Tinder discount code Centers for infection Control and Prevention, a nationwide Cancer Institute Preventive Oncology Academic Award, A nationwide Cancer Institute research grant tion analysis Center Special Interest Project ). This book was additionally authorized by the nationwide Cancer Institute .

We gratefully acknowledge the help associated with farmworker women and lay health workers whom took part in this task and also the people in the nationwide Center for Farmworker Health nationwide Cancer Coalition. We additionally acknowledge Vincent Chen and Patricia Dolan Mullen for support in the analysis and Edward W. Fernandez and Karyn Popham for editorial assistance.